Deconsructivism began to develop in the late twentieth century, being a continuation of post-modern architecture. According research, It is influenced by the theory of Deconstruction, which is a form of semiotic analysis. Designers disturbed the ordinary space and basic characteristics of traditional buildings such as the body or shape of the building and frame construction. Modifications such as curving , waving or breaking walls is done. By doing this, buildings are seen as stimulating unpredictability and controlled chaos.

Deconstructivist architecture is characterised by surface manipulation, fragmentation, and non-rectilinear shapes which distort and dislocate architectural conventions concerning structure and envelope. It deliberately juxtaposes elements that appear to contradict each other in order to challenge traditional ideas of harmony and continuity. In short, deconstructivism challenges almost all traditional styles of building design. According to Boundless Art History, “Deconstructivism in contemporary architecture stands in opposition to the ordered rationality of Modernism. Its relationship with Postmodernism is also decidedly contrary. Though postmodernist and nascent deconstructivist architects published theories alongside each other in the journal Oppositions, that journal’s contents mark the beginning of a decisive break between the two movements. Deconstructivism took a confrontational stance toward much of architecture and architectural history, wanting to disjoin and disassemble architecture. While postmodernism returned to embrace, often slyly or ironically, the historical references that modernism had shunned, deconstructivism rejects the postmodern acceptance of such references. It also rejects the idea of ornament as an after-thought or decoration.”

Elements of deconstructivist architecture are seen throughout graphic design. The idea of using distortion and fragmented forms to create designs is one that is used across the board. This movement has left a mark on graphic design where we still see usage of this “controlled chaos” to create something striking and balanced.

Source: Boundless. “Deconstructivism.” Boundless Art History. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2015 from


De stijl

“ Theo van Doesburg founded the contemporary art journal De Stijl In 1917 as a method of recruiting artists of like minds in the creation of a new artistic collective that involved an expansive notion of art, influenced by the utopian ethics of spiritual harmony” . The most recognized artists within this movement were the painters Theo van Doesburg, who was also a writer and a critic, and Piet Mondrian, along with the architect Gerrit Reitveld. The movement ultimately proposed simplicity and concepts through which they could be expressive. The Netherlands-based De Stijl movement embraced an abstract and simplistic aesthetic based on basic visual elements such as primary colors and geometric forms. The synchronization and order was established through a decrese of elements to soley geometric forms and primary colors. The movement was in part a reaction against the Art deco period. The reduction in the quality of De Stijl art was intended by its creators as a universal and visual language appropriate for the modern age. De Stijl artists furthered their horizons by applying their style to a multitude of media in the fine and applied arts. The initial idea was to create a fusion of form and function, it is believed this avenue would make De Stijl the ultimate style. To date, De Stijl artists focused their attention not only to fine art media such as painting and sculpture, but virtually every other art form namely industrial design, typography, and even to the extrems of literature and music. De Stijl’s influence was perhaps most noticeable in the realm of architecture, this movement was a major contributor to the International Style of the 1920s and 1930s.

Die Stijl was also the name given to a publication that discussed the groups theories which was also published by van Doesburg. The publication Die Stijl is a representation of the most significant work of graphic design from the movement, however the ideas to reduce form and color are major influences on the advancement of graphic design as well. Modern day graphic designers adapt the approach that “less is more” when creating designs, by utilizing simpler forms and colours to communicate an idea.

Pop Art

Pop art is an artistic movement that began in the mid-1950s in Britain and the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art posed a challenge to the traditions of fine art by incorperating imagery from popular culture such as advertising and news. In pop art, materials are sometimes visually removed from its actual context, and is then isolated, and/or combined with dissimilar material. The Pop art form employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects.

One of the main aims is to incorperate the use of popular images (as opposed to exclusive) culture in art. It is also related to the artists’ use of mechanical means of imitation or rendering skills. The Pop art movement aimed to blur the boundaries between “high” art and “low” culture, by creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture objects and media stars. The concept that there is no pecking order in culture and that art is permitted to borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art.

The following is a list of pioneers of the pop art movement , the American pop artists are namely Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist, and Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain. These pioneers all had different approaches to pop art for example; Roy Lichtenstein’s style was soley based on the comic strip aspect of culture. However, they have collectively changed and in doing so have influenced the entire art scene being as they left behind countless new and innovative possibilities of art making that can be implemented universally.



Claude Garamond

Claude Gramond was Born in Paris, France in 1490, Garamond’s career out as an apprentice for the Parisian punch-cutter and printer, Antoine Augereau in 1510 . In the 16th century that Garamond and his peers found that the typography industry was something of interest. .Many of the printers during that time period were able to master all or most of the artistic and technical skills of book production from type design to bookbinding. Claude Garamond was first to specialize in type design, punch cutting, and type-founding in Paris as a service to many famous publishers.

In 1545 Garamond became his own publisher, featuring his own types including a new italic. His first book published was Pia et religiosa Meditatio of David Chambellan. As publisher, Claude Garamond relied on his creativity harnessed by reasoned discipline to produce superbly well crafted products. He modelled his book publishing style after the classic works of the Venetian printers who catered to the absolute elites of high society. He admired and emulated the works of Aldus Manutius. Garamond insisted on clarity in design, generous page margins, quality composition, paper and printing , which was always accentuated with superb binding.

Garamond is famous for his series of Garamond typefaces which is a family of old-style serif typefaces . Most Garamond fonts have become renowned for their excellent readability, elegance, and character.

Because of the soundness of Garamond’s designs his typefaces have historical staying power, and they are likely to remain the day-to-day tools of professional typographers, as long as western civilization survives. Reading a well set Garamond text page is almost effortless, a fact that has been well known to book designers for over 450 years.

Claude Garamond’s contribution to typography was vast, a true renaissance man. Creating perfection in the type that he crafted his life will live on through his contribution to typography.


Paul Rand

Paul Rand was an important graphic designer and art director in the twentieth century. He was the pioneer of iconic corporate logo designs for major firms, including IBM, ABC, Morningstar, Inc., NeXT Computer, Yale University and Enron. He was an avid practitioner of Swiss Style of graphic designing in American advertising industry.

Rand, initially named Peretz Rosenbaum, was born on August 15, 1914, in Brooklyn, New York, Since a very early age, he had shown an interest in painting and designing . Paul attended night classes at the Pratt Institute from 1929 to 1932 and attended several other art schools such as The New School for Design, the Art Students League and Yale University in Connecticut. Although Rand received extensive training in the arts, Rand developed his graphic sense through self-education largely, as he voraciously read the European magazines, discovering the works of Cassandre and László Moholy-Nagy.

Paul rand was greatly responsible for defining visual culture in America as he radically transformed advertising. Rand earned his ultimate success by designing corporate logos. Paul Rand became a house hold name for logo designing in corporate industry. In 1956, IBM became one of the companies that truly defined rand’s identity and put him on the map. He revised the IBM logo design in 1960 and yet again in 1972 with the famous stripes pattern. Other evidence of Rand’s graphic genius is seen in NeXT Computer corporate identity project, ABC, UPS AND ERON.

I believe rand is of the most successful, influential and revolutionary graphic designers of all time. He has mastered the technique of simplicity in design as he manages to make striking and effective designs by using the most basic components and strategically arranging them with a modern approach. With the purpose that graphic design serves, it calls for design to be recognizable and easily understood which I think rand has done expertly by making these iconic brands who they are today.

Steve Jobs admired Rand’s graphic creativity and called him “the greatest living graphic designer.”

Paul Rand said, “Visual communications of any kind, whether persuasive or informative, from billboards to birth announcements, should be seen as the embodiment of form and function: the integration of the beautiful and the useful.” It’s not only about how it looks, or how it works, but about how it looks and works together.

Paul Rand –

Paul Rand, the Visionary Who Showed Us That Design Matters –

The Influence of Paul Rand’s Thoughts on Design –

Paul Renner

Paul Renner was a famous German graphic and type designer and typographer in the 20th century. He was known for being an eminent author, painter and teacher. Renner was born on August 9th, 1878 in Wernigerode, Germany.

Renner received his formal education from a secondary school, Gymnasium. After nine years of learning Greek and Latin, Renner opted to study arts at several different academies. In his early years Renner studied architecture and painting in Berlin, Munich and Karlsruhe, and then later worked as a painter in Munich. In 1926, he accepted the position of the head at the Printing Trade School in Münich. Later he established and became director of the Master School for Germany’s Printers.

Some of Renners values were influenced by prominent scholarly figures and theoreticians, such as Nietzsche, Goethe, Kant and Schiller. He began writing from 1908 onwards and produced a lot of work on design and typography.

He supported the Bauhaus movement and was equally fascinated by the functionalist strain in modernism. Therefore, according Renner’s work is seen as a bridge between nineteenth and twentieth century tradition.

He is best known for designing the Futura typeface, which became the milestone creation of twentieth century and influenced the modern typeface designs. To date modern typographers still use this typeface frequently, which is evidence of its longevity. Other typefaces by Renner include, Futura (1928), Plak (1928), Futura Black (1929), Futura licht (1932), Futura Schlagzeile (1932), Ballade (1937), Renner Antiqua (1939), Steile Futura (1954).

Font Designer – Paul Renner:

Paul Renner:

Erik Gill

Erik Gill – was born February 22, 1882 and died November 17 1940 he was a British sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. In the 1920s he turned his creative abilities to type design and in 1928 the font Gill Sans was born. The Gill Sans font was a success and was issued by Monotype between the years of 1928 to 1930.

The roots of Gill Sans are traceable to the 1981 typeface that Gill’s teacher, Edward Johnston, designed for the signage of the London Underground Railway. Gill´s alphabet is arguably more classical in proportion and to date contains what have become known as his signature flared capital R and eyeglass lowercase g. Gill Sans is categorized as a humanist sans serif with some distinguished geometric touches in its structures. It is also said to have a distinctly British feel.

Gills font is legible and modern though sometimes cheerfully unconventional, the proportion of the lettering is genius, the lighter weights work for text, and the bolder weights make for compelling display typography. Gill originally designed this typeface as an uppercase set. It was not until 1929 that the lowercase set was added. Having spent much of the 1930s developing further weights and variations, Gill Sans is now one of the most widely used typefaces today.